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10. Schematic diagrams of wurtzite (a) and zinc blende (b) crystal structures. These can be divided into the C6v 4 and Td 2 space groups, respectively. The large spheres are the group III elements and the smaller spheres are atoms of the group V element, nitrogen usually used as crystal growth surfaces. Growth conditions for hexagonal crystals depend on the polarization (+c, –c) of the c surfaces. In heterostructures, interface charges are generated as a result of differences in polarization, leading to polarization fields within the crystal.

The bottom of the conduction band, Γ6 , has s-like properties and is doubly degenerate. The top of the valence band, Γ8 , has p-like properties and is fourfold degenerate. A doubly degenerate split state, Γ7 , resulting from the spin–orbit coupling, exists at an energy ∆(SO) beneath Γ8 . Away from the Γ-point (k = 0), k ·p perturbation theory splits the Γ8 hole band into two – giving the heavy (HH, with heavy effective mass) and the light (LH, light effective mass) hole bands. In Fig. 7b, the energy difference between the Γ8 - and Γ6 -points becomes the direct bandgap (Eg ).

Band structures of wurtzite and zinc blende structures near the Γ-point of the crystal field and spin–orbit coupling. The total angular momentum J is 3/2 for Γ9v and Γ7v and 1/2 for Γ7v . The three resulting bands are called heavy hole (HH, A band), light hole (LH, B band), and crystal field hole (CH, C band), respectively. On the other hand, ZB is divided into the doubly degenerate Γ8v (J = 3/2, HH, LH) and Γ7v (J = 1/2, CH) because of spin– orbit splitting. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to determine the band structure of WZ-type InN [50].

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