By Sue A. Kawashima

For English-speaking scholars of eastern, debris are might be the main tough point of the language to profit. it might be no exaggeration to assert that, for many humans, they could by no means be thoroughly mastered. hence, the examine of debris is an entire life project, and scholars want a lifelong significant other to aid them alongside the best way. That better half is A Dictionary of jap Particles. overlaying over a hundred debris in alphabetical order, the dictionary explains the meanings of every (most have a couple of) and provides pattern sentences for every that means. Illustrations are supplied the place important for explanation. There also are routines in the back of the publication if you happen to desire to try their wisdom of particle utilization. Appendices and endpaper charts are supplied for simple entry. A Dictionary of eastern Particles is a necessary reference paintings, intended for use through the years as scholars proceed to confront confusing debris.

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IJIJ Whatever this means, the Han commentator did not describe long vs. short. ) and tense (j} Iffi~ = ~*i. ), or pharyngeal vs. plain. So far the OC origin of the QYS Div. III is a matter of hypotheses and speculation. 1, 1994: 95). Norman leaves type B syllables unmarked and considers Type A (Div. I1IV) syllables pharyngealized. Zhengzhang Shang fang and Pan Wuyun explain the distinction as differences in length. Most promising is the idea that at some point in OC the difference has been between tense and lax syllables as in Austroasiatic (AA) register languages (Ferlus); in fact, Pulleyblank (1994: 93) has already pointed to parallelism with Khmer registers, after having drawn heavily on the AA languages Vietnamese and Muong in his arguments.

III as zhang 5:& *tral). dB < DC *kri? ~ WT khri 'seat'). Baxter's medial *r in Div. 3/3 is different from the Div. II medial *r. , MC 1- < *r- interchanges with Div. II k-, ~-, and others (*r- - *kr-- 20 INTRODUCTION *sr-... ); the consonants seem to be 'movable'. The ch6ngniu 3/3 medial *r, as well as the *r in MC retroflex Div. III syllables like zhang ~ *tral), have hardly any XS contact with MC 1-, they seem to be a firm part of the initial. Gong Hwang-cherng has suggested writing OC *r as a pre-initial in these retroflex syllables; he may write *r-tal) instead of *tral).

Zhengzhang Shangfang understands these terms to mean 'fast' (jibasically means 'urgent') and 'slow' (huan basically means 'slack') articulation, which he takes to mean 'short' and 'long'. However, the terms could just as well be translated 16 INTRODUCfION 'tense' and 'lax' pronunciation (Pan and Zhengzhang reject this because they believe that more TB languages make length distinctions than tense/lax distinctions). I1ffi (nzji) 1l§-j}Iffi~ "n~iB (Div. I) is pronounced inside and deep, and nzji (Div.

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