By A. Roy

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In this condition, the nozzle passes maximum possible mass flow rate. If the back pressure is reduced with an intention of increasing the mass flow rate, the nozzle does not respond to it. com 54 A First Course on Aerodynamics Fundamentals of Inviscid Compressible Flow The pressure that exists in the ambient atmosphere or in a downstream reservoir where the nozzle discharges is called as back pressure. If the pressure at the exit plane of the nozzle is above the back pressure, the flow further expands to adjust with that back pressure.

Since the flow is a t a high speed a fluid particle in the free stream crosses the vehicle length within a very short time. If chemical reactions get completed within this short transit time, they are said to be equilibrium chemical reactions, if not, they are said to be non equilibrium chemical reactions. The equilibrium or non-equilibrium nature of chemical reactions can alter the flow characteristics. Very often hypersonic vehicles have a blunt nose. Since the qmis very large near the nose, close to 90º, a curved detached shock called as a bow shock is formed.

It would be interesting to look at the differential form of the above equations. We would begin with the momentum equation in its differential form. Let us imagine that the control volume shrinks to an infinitesimal axial length dx. This leads to a control volume with cross sectional area A at station 1 and cross sectional area (A+dA) at station 2 respectively. , pressure changes from p to p+dp. 33) is the differential form of Euler’s equation. The reader is urged to explore the differential form of energy equation.

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