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Extra info for A reference grammar of Trumai
The epenthetic schwa is inserted between the preceding consonant and the glide: (22) mbd md mbüchild REL give birth- ST AT 'the child is born' zä EE -» [mbaw-i] The labial glide /w/ is realized as a round vowel when preceded and followed by a schwa. The new vowel assumes the tone of the preceding syllable: (23) w -* u/schwa_ schwa 2. The consonantal system (24) ko \vd [kuu] INF start 'he started to eat' zd EE kd INF zdm eat (25) sd n kd \vu [sdnkuu] zd ISO PREP INF start EE zdm \vdda eat food started to eat' (Kefedjevreng dialect) 15 wdda food kd INF The labial glide is also deleted between a consonant and the high round vowel: (26) G[+round] -» 0/C u.
The same tonal rules apply, low tone verbs become high, and low-low verbs become high-low. Compare the tone on the verb ngdcC 4. ' (12) md mbir mbir REL jump jump 'the one who jumps' Cf: (13) ka mbir za INF jump EE 'He jumped' (14) ma frim REL listen listen 'the one who is a listener' Cf. : (17) ka faim INF listen 'He listened' ma tiy REL look 'the one who ka tiy INF look 'He looked' EE tiy look looks' za EE High tone verbs stay high in the nominalized agentive form. While it may be claimed that the nominalized agentive forms are simply varieties of relative clauses, nevertheless, the marker ma is a derivational morpheme, and it can be used with nominal stems: (18) mä-foam ma-dzalbay 'side, border' 'river shore, steep' We consider the marker ma to be a derivational morpheme even in 40 The structure of the noun phrase words for which no form without md has been recorded.
Bd 'associative marker, singular' / 'third person plural subject' 4. Syllabification S VC (74) 25 (S Stands for a sonorant). Only nasal consonants can be syllabic peaks: ntsä 'vulva', ntswr 'nose', 'excrement' An example of the VC syllable is the verb //'blow', the form occurring in verb reduplication. nerj] CV to 'genitive marker' (to in phrase-internal position) CVC dok 'horse', tor 'month' (in phrase-internal position) CSV gra 'find', tra 'month, time' There are no CSVC syllables. To prevent a disallowed syllable structure including disallowed consonant clusters from emerging as the result of vowel deletion, a schwa is inserted in lieu of the deleted vowel.