By Yayi Wei
This publication is a entire advisor to complex strategies and fabrics utilized in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). it really is a big textual content for these new to the sector in addition to for present practitioners who are looking to expand their realizing of this most modern expertise. The booklet can be utilized as direction fabric for graduate scholars of electric engineering, fabric sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and will even be used to coach engineers taken with the manufacture of built-in circuits. It offers concepts for choosing serious fabrics (topcoats, photoresists, and antireflective coatings), and optimizing immersion strategies to make sure larger functionality and reduce defectivity at lower price. This e-book additionally contains sections on shrinking, trimming, and smoothing of the face up to trend to minimize characteristic sizes and line-edge roughness. ultimately, it describes the hot improvement of 193i together with double publicity and double patterning. Contents - Immersion Lithography and its demanding situations- procedure Steps within the tune- withstand Leaching and Water Uptake- touch attitude of Water on face up to Stacks- Topcoat and withstand for Immersion Lithography- Immersion Defects and disorder aid ideas- Antireflection Coatings and Underlayer know-how- face up to curb and Trim tactics- Double Exposures and Double Patterning- Line-edge Roughness of withstand styles- Extendibility of 193-nm Immersion Lithography (193i+)
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Extra info for Advanced Processes for 193-nm Immersion Lithography (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM189)
Levinson, “193nm immersion lithography defects,” Presentation at the SEMATECH 2nd 193nm Immersion Symposium, Brugge, Belgium, Sept. 14, 2005. 24. M. Colburn, S. Halle, M. Burkhardt, S. Burns, N. Seong, D. Goldfarb, and DE Team, “Process challenges for extension of H2O immersion lithography to hyper-NA,” SEMATECH Litho Forum 2006. Chapter 2 Process Steps in the Track The track is a necessary tool for lithographic processing, providing all of the material processes (coating, baking, rinsing, and developing) except exposure.
37 These defects are several microns to hundreds of microns across (Fig. 26). Blob defects have been observed in both 248- and 193-nm resists and appear after development. The formation mechanism of these defects is complicated and still not completely understood. However, some studies successfully used energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy to determine that these defects have approximately the same chemical composition as the original resist films. 38 The partially deprotected polymers cannot completely dissolve in the developer and form particles and clusters there, then deposit back to the resist surface, forming blob defects.
12). 23 The temperature decreases in the X-direction and is uniform along the Y-direction in the wafer area. The range of the temperature gradient can be adjusted by changing the heat source temperature and the type and degree of active cooling at the end of the TGP, as well as by changing the displacement along the gradient direction from the heat source. 12 Thermal gradient hotplate. (Reprinted by permission from Ref. ) With the TGP, a substrate can be baked across a range of temperatures, allowing multiple experiments to be run in parallel.