By Isabelle M. Germano
A accomplished overview of the cutting-edge expertise presently on hand for neuronavigation. it's going to give you the reader with the scientific functions of this know-how to numerous elements of cranial and spinal surgical procedure.
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Extra info for Advanced techniques in image-guided brain and spine surgery
0 mm. Although the appearance of the histograms for the two combinations of image modalities is quite different, there is an important similarity. Specifically, the intensity histograms are sharpest for the registered images, and they become noticeably blurred with misalignment. These plots provide insight into a concept of image registration that is based on entropy and information theory. 48 Shannon, who was working at Bell Laboratories on the transmission of information along a noisy telephone line, devised a theory around a new measure of information.
There are two major approaches for correcting scaling error in MR images. 22–24 It is important to use the identical scanning parameters for the patient and phantom images. This method is straightforward to implement, but it requires custom software and an extra phantom scan for each patient, and thus is not widely performed. 22 Typically, image volumes of the head are assumed to differ only by the position and orientation of the head in the scanner when the images were acquired, and thus algorithms that register head images frequently determine a six degree-of-freedom (DOF) rigidbody transformation that consists of three rotation and three translation parameters.
There are several error measures associated with point-based registration: A B 21 1. Fiducial localization error (FLE). , the error of localizing the fiducial point). 2. Fiducial registration error (FRE). This is the distance, after registration, between the measured position of the fiducial in one view and its measured position in the other view. 3. Target registration error (TRE). 13,29,30 Figure 2–6 illustrates these errors. Of these three error measures, TRE is the most clinically relevant.