By Yutaka Kawarabayasi Ph.D. (auth.), Pratyoosh Shukla, Brett I. Pletschke (eds.)

Enzyme expertise is one the main promising disciplines in smooth biotechnology. during this ebook, the purposes of a wide selection of enzymes are highlighted. present stories in enzyme expertise are targeted in the direction of the invention of novel enzymes (termed “bio-discovery” or “bio-prospecting”) and the id and elucidation of novel pathways of those novel enzymes with emphasis on their business relevance. With the improvement of molecular innovations and different bioinformatics instruments, the time to combine this topic with different fields within the existence sciences has arrived. A fast growth of the information base within the box of enzyme biotechnology has happened over the last few years. a lot of this enlargement has been pushed by means of the bio-discovery of many new enzymes from quite a lot of environments, a few severe in nature, by means of next protein (enzyme) engineering. those enzymes have chanced on a variety of functions, starting from bioremediation, bio-monitoring, biosensor improvement, bioconversion to biofuels and different biotechnologically vital value-added items. Hydrolases represent a huge component to the worldwide annual profit generated through commercial enzymes and the emphasis has for this reason been put on those enzymes and their functions. With the significant curiosity of researchers lively during this sector, this e-book will serve to supply details on present features during this box of analysis. within the present version, the contributions of many varied issues in the direction of constructing new instructions of analysis within the sector of enzyme biotechnology are defined. This booklet serves to supply a distinct resource of knowledge to undergraduates, publish graduates and doctoral classes in microbiology and biotechnology besides allied lifestyles sciences. the current version of the booklet covers all vital components of enzyme biotechnology i.e. the big variety of enzymes within the box of enzyme biotechnology and their commercial functions, new equipment and state of the art info on smooth equipment of enzyme discovery. This ebook will act nearly as good source on many of the present features of enzyme expertise for all scholars engaged in bioengineering and biotechnology.

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Oryzae β-galactosidase formed preferentially β-(1 → 6) bonds, with minor proportion of β-(1 → 3). B. circulans and K. lactis β-galactosidases produce nearly 45–50 % (w/w) GOS, whereas the A. oryzae enzyme produces less than 30 % (w/w). Another difference between the three enzymes was the polymerization degree of products; in particular, for a GOS mixture enriched in disaccharides, K. lactis and A. oryzae β-galactosidases are the best choices. In contrast, the B. circulans enzyme would be preferable for a GOS product with a high trisaccharides and tetrasaccharides content.

B. Rodriguez-Colinas et al. In this context, ethanol-permeabilized K. lactis cells have been evaluated for lactose hydrolysis (Fontes et al. 2001; Genari et al. 2003; Panesar et al. 2007; Siso et al. 1992) and for the bioconversion of lactose and fructose to the disaccharide lactulose (Lee et al. 2004). We investigated the use of K. lactis permeabilized cells for the synthesis of GOS. Although permeabilized cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus were also recently employed for GOS production, the structure of the synthesized products was not reported (Manera et al.

Soni • N. Kango (*) Department of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Dr. com the lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulose is abundant and represents one of the major natural renewable resources and a dominating waste material from agriculture. This renewable resource can be used in several industries, including the pharmaceutical, biofuel, and pulp and paper industries, and many more (Kango et al. 2003; Kango 2007). The generation of feedstock is possible by hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using various microorganisms and their enzymes.

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