By Chun - Zhu Li
Over the last decade, vast examine has been performed just about coal as one of many world's best strength assets. the present and destiny prestige of this source is a subject of substantial curiosity to the biggest international economies, together with the USA, Japan, China and Europe.
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Extra resources for Advances in the Science of Victorian Brown Coal
The reaction in pyridine is irreversible and gives better accessibility to the functional groups inside the swollen macromolecular network in coal although brown coal may swell only to a limited extent. When the method was applied to a wide range of coals ranging in rank from brown coal to low-volatile bituminous coal , it gave results comparable to those from ^ CNMR. g. the ion-exchange method). The development of this method might have posed serious questions about our understanding of the chemistry of high rank coals .
In a polyelectrolyte (such as low rank coal ), large changes in pKa can occur because of the effects of neighbouring acidic groups . Thus, the distinction of -COOH and -OH groups based on the inflection points does not have a sound theoretical ground. A major advantage of this method is that the titration is carried out in an organic solvent in which coal swells and the accessibility of the functional groups is improved. 41 structure and Properties This advantage is however quite limited for brown coals due to their limited swelling in the solvent.
5 L72 ~ H75 80 84 89 <10 <10 <10 9 7 4 R-0 56 70 93 16-18 16-18 16-18 100 105 L114~H116 124 <10 5 <13 <12 Ar-H Ar-C or Ar-H 101 113 126 140 16-18 16-18 16-18 16-18 131 L140~H141 12 <12 Ar-C L145~H146 L150~H153 160 <12 <14 <14 Ar-0 153 167 15-16 15-16 175 180 15 15 COOH 178 187 12-15 12-15 200 L250 ~ H300 15 <20 C=0 202 12-15 OCH3 R-OH R-O-R 48 Chapter 2 (extinction coefficients) for the absoq^tion band are uniform across the samples studied. This is rather approximate and thus the results should only be considered as semiquantitative.