By Jonathan Zeitlin, Gary Herrigel

This e-book develops a brand new and conceptually particular research of Americanization in ecu and eastern after the second one global warfare, in response to a wealthy set of sectoral and firm-based reports by means of a world workforce of exclusive students. The authors spotlight the self sufficient and artistic function of neighborhood actors in selectively adapting US know-how and administration easy methods to go well with neighborhood stipulations and, strikingly, in developing new hybrid varieties that mixed indigenous and overseas practices in unexpected and infrequently remarkably aggressive methods.

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272; Bjarnar and Kipping, ‘The Marshall Plan and the Transfer of US Management Models to Europe’, 11–14. ’, 302–18; Pells, Not Like Us, esp. ch. 9. 20 See, for example, Djelic, Exporting the American Model, ch. 1; Alfred D. ), Big Business and the Wealth of Nations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 63–101. 12 INTRODUCTION economy and society which allowed European and Japanese observers to interpret and appropriate contemporary discourses of ‘Americanization’ in contradictory ways according to their own subjective experiences, interests, and desires 21 Between these two extremes stand those, like the contributors to this volume, who accept the idea of an ‘American model’ with certain core characteristics as a contemporary historical construct, while at the same time calling attention to significant ambiguities, undercurrents, and disparities within US industrial practice, from which foreign visitors could accordingly draw a variety of lessons.

In a few extreme cases, such as Finsider's Cornigliano complex, Simca's Nanterre automobile factory, or Nissan's Oppama works, European and Japanese companies employed US engineering consultants and equipment suppliers to design, lay out, and even install entire plants. Other companies like Volvo brought in American consultants to implement new payment and work-study systems such as MTM (Methods-Time Measurement), while Finsider, as Ranieri details, worked closely with US steel companies and management consultants to import not only technological know-how but also budgeting, planning, and standard costing methods, as well as supervisory training, job analysis, and job evaluation.

46 In most countries, too, including France, Britain, West Germany, and Japan, both peak and 45 In addition to the chapters by Ranieri and Bigazzi, see Segreto, ‘Americanizzare o modernizzare l'economia’; Zamagni, ‘Betting on the Future’ and ‘Italian “Economic Miracle” Revisited’; Sergio Chillè, ‘Il “Productivity and Technical Assistance Program” per l'economia italiana (1949–1954): Accettazione e resistenze ai progetti statunitense di rinnovamento del sistema produttivo nazionale’, Annali Fondazione G.

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