By Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl

Des Nicholl offers a brand new, totally revised, and accelerated variation of his well known undergraduate-level textbook. The publication keeps some of the gains of the unique version and nonetheless deals a concise technical creation to the topic of genetic engineering. it's divided into 3 major sections: easy molecular biology, equipment of gene manipulation, and smooth functions of genetic engineering. purposes lined within the ebook comprise genomics, protein engineering, gene treatment, cloning, transgenic animals and crops, and bioethics. An advent to Genetic Engineering is key studying for undergraduate scholars of biotechnology, genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry.

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This is done in a series of four or five reactions with different specificities, and the reaction conditions are chosen so that, on average, only one modification will be introduced into each copy of the DNA molecule. The modified bases are then removed from their sugar groups and the strands cleaved at these positions using the chemical piperidine. The theory is that, given the large number of molecules and the different reactions, this process will produce a set of fragments which terminate at different bases and differ in length by one nucleotide.

1 Restriction enzymes – cutting DNA The restriction enzymes, which cut DNA at defined sites, represent one of the most important groups of enzymes for the manipulation of DNA. These enzymes are found in bacterial cells, where they function as part of a protective mechanism called the restriction–modification system. In this system the restriction enzyme hydrolyses any exogenous DNA that appears in the cell. To prevent the enzyme acting on the host cell DNA, the modification enzyme of the system (a methylase) modifies the host DNA by methylation of particular bases in the recognition sequence, which prevents the restriction enzyme from cutting the DNA.

The ribosomes are the sites where protein synthesis occurs; in prokaryotes, ribosomes are composed of 22 Introducing molecular biology Fig. 8. Transcription and translation. (a) Transcription involves synthesis of mRNA by RNA polymerase. Part of the DNA/mRNA sequence is given. The mRNA has the same sequence as the coding strand in the DNA (the non-template strand), apart from U being substituted for T. (b) The ribosome is the site of translation, and is made up of the large subunit (LSU) and the small subunit (SSU), each made up of ribosomal RNA molecules and many different proteins.

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