By Anand Udupa
Zen of Analog Circuit layout
RECENTLY up-to-date WITH NEW CONTENT
From 2011 until 2013, I taught a direction titled Analog layout for all which coated ideas beginning with MOS transistors and improved until the layout of two-stage amplifiers. The direction brought strategies in a fashion that led the scholar to the synthesis of latest circuits, no longer purely their analysis. yet I nonetheless felt that there has been a extra intuitive method to introduce Analog Circuit layout, one who may convey out the wonderful thing about the topic in order that the coed may perhaps ‘stop and scent the roses’.
But why a ‘Zen of Analog’…?
Because the foundational thoughts in Analog heavily reflect human relationships! the aim of this ebook is to take a simplified and intuitive route to unencumber a few profound secrets and techniques of Analog. The protagonist of this ebook is Ang-Lao, a medieval monk who brings his insights into the Analog international to resolve the demanding situations in human relationships.
The ebook addresses an issue assertion that a lot of Analog Circuit layout attempts to resolve - how do you already know an ideal buffer? It starts off with the easy strategies of voltage assets and present resources. From the I-V curve of the MOS transistor, we see the way it behaves very like a Voltage managed present source (VCCS). The inherent problem in getting even an easy two-transistor circuit to paintings is the clash coming up from having such present source-like parts in sequence. The digital inverter is proven to be one such circuit that could functionality like an analog amplifier, albeit over a slim variety of enter voltage. The impression of loading on any such circuit is illustrated graphically and is proven as an extra problem in getting it to paintings in an analog demeanour.
Having understood the problems concerned, we see how throughout the strikingly basic yet immensely strong suggestion of feedback, one of many transistors could be converted subtly to make it behave like a voltage resource. In that technique, we detect our first approximation to an incredible analog buffer. We then see how manifestations of an analogous notion leads us to the synthesis of an entire bunch of 2 transistor circuits - source followers, universal resource amplifiers with gm-load and with diode-connected load, and differential amplifiers . The thoughts utilized in synthesis of such based circuits also are prolonged to the research of even more advanced circuits, for instance, a Voltage to present (V2I) conversion circuit. We introduce the concept that of small sign parameters, gm, gds, exhibiting the calculations for the achieve and output impedance of our circuits, and quantifying how solid every one of our buffers rather are.
The narrative switches among thoughts of Electronics and the tale of Aman-Ra, an engineer from Medieval Egypt. being affected by his relationships, his guiding mild is Ang-Lao, who teaches him the key to satisfied relationships.
For a few, this booklet will sign the tip of the terror of Analog. For others, it will likely be the beginning of a love tale.
oI-V features of Voltage & present sources
oIdeal & non-ideal sources
oActive and passive elements
oI-V features of a MOSFET
oMOS transistor as a Voltage managed present source
oDigital inverter as Analog amplifier
oCommon resource (CS) amplifier
oEffect of loading on a CS amplifier
oHow are you able to make a MOSFET behave like a voltage source?
oSynthesis of a CS amplifier with diode-connected load
oAnalysis of a V2I circuit together with an advent to present mirror
oSynthesis of CS amplifier with gm-load
oSynthesis of resource follower circuit
oSmall sign parameters: gm, gds
oSmall-signal achieve and output impedance
oSynthesis of a differential amplifier
oSynthesis of an Operational amplifier
oRealizing the buffer utilizing the Operational Amplifier